Improving the EPP and Spectrum estimation tools for the 2008-9 round of national estimates with specific attention to prevalence fits and their uncertainty, changes in the urban:rural population ratio, bias in HIV prevalence measured in national surveys, incidence estimates, orphanhood estimates, effects of ART; and a discussion on concurrent partnerships. Report of a meeting of the UNAIDS Reference Group for Estimates, Modelling and Projections held in London, UK, February 28th and 29th 2008.